Traumatic brain injury occurs when an external mechanical force causes brain dysfunction. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex injury with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. The impact on a person and his or her family can be devastating.
Traumatic brain injury, often referred to as TBI, is most often an acute event similar to other injuries. That is where the similarity between traumatic brain injury and other injuries ends. One moment the person is normal and the next moment life has abruptly changed.
A brain injury is different from a broken limb or punctured lung. An injury in these areas limit the use of a specific part of your body, but your personality and mental abilities remain unchanged. Most often, these body structures heal and regain their previous function. Brain injuries do not heal like other injuries. No two brain injuries are alike and the consequence of two similar injuries may be very different. Symptoms may appear right away or may not be present for days or weeks after the injury. Some symptoms last days or weeks, while others can last years, or a lifetime.
TBI is a common injury that is often missed initially when a medical team is focused on saving the individual’s life. Although the medical technology has advanced significantly, the effects of TBI are significant.
The mechanisms of the highest causes of brain injury: Open head Injury, Closed Head Injury, Deceleration Injuries, Chemical/Toxic, Hypoxia, Tumors, Infections and Stroke.
Most Common Causes are:
- Motor vehicle accidents
- Violence, such as gunshot wounds, child abuse, or beatings
- Injuries from sports or during combat (such as explosions)
Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score 13-15)
Mild traumatic brain injury occurs when:
- Loss of consciousness is very brief, usually a few seconds or minutes
- Loss of consciousness does not have to occur—the person may be dazed or confused
- Testing or scans of the brain may appear normal
- A mild traumatic brain injury is diagnosed only when there is a change in the mental status at the time of injury—the person is dazed, confused, or loses consciousness. The change in mental status indicates that the person’s brain functioning has been altered, this is called a concussion.
Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (Glasgow Coma Scale core 9-12)
Most brain injuries result from moderate and minor head injuries. Such injuries usually result from a non-penetrating blow to the head, and/or a violent shaking of the head. As luck would have it many individuals sustain such head injuries without any apparent consequences. However, for many others, such injuries result in lifelong disabling impairments.
A moderate traumatic brain injury occurs when:
- A loss of consciousness lasts from a few minutes to a few hours
- Confusion lasts from days to weeks
- Physical, cognitive, and/or behavioral impairments last for months or are permanent.
Persons with moderate traumatic brain injury generally can make a good recovery with treatment or successfully learn to compensate for their deficits.
Severe Brain Injury
Severe head injuries usually result from crushing blows or penetrating wounds to the head. Such injuries crush, rip and shear delicate brain tissue. This is the most life threatening, and the most intractable type of brain injury.
Typically, heroic measures are required in treatment of such injuries. Frequently, severe head trauma results in an open head injury, one in which the skull has been crushed or seriously fractured. Treatment of open head injuries usually requires prolonged hospitalization and extensive rehabilitation. Typically, rehabilitation is incomplete and for most part there is no return to pre-injury status. Closed head injuries can also result in severe brain injury.
TBI can cause a wide range of functional short- or long-term changes affecting thinking, sensation, language, or emotions.
TBI can also cause epilepsy and increase the risk for conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other brain disorders that become more prevalent with age.
Repeated mild TBIs occurring over an extended period of time (i.e., months, years) can result in cumulative neurological and cognitive deficits. Repeated mild TBIs occurring within a short period of time (i.e., hours, days, or weeks) can be catastrophic or fatal.